Khadija Gilani, Rehana Badar, Nazia Kanwal, Asma ahmed, Samina Khurshid, Muqadas Asghar


The current study examined the correlation between the prevalence of Xanthomonas axonopodis L. and flavonoid content in the leaves and pulp of various citrus cultivars (both healthy and Xac-infected) across different regions of Pakistan. The study considered environmental factors such as temperature (°C), relative humidity (%), total precipitation (mm), and wind speed (km/h). Flavonoid levels were quantified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Statistical analysis revealed the presence of 12 different flavonoids in the citrus cultivars. The concentrations of these flavonoids were found to be lower in Xac-infected plants compared to healthy ones. Additionally, the amounts of each flavonoid varied under different climatic conditions. The findings of this study could be utilized to promote the commercialization of citrus varieties that are either resistant to Xac infection or possess high flavonoid content.


Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, Citrus canker, Rutaceae, Citrus, Flavonoids

Full Text:



Gmitter, F.G. and Hu, X., The possible role of Yunnan, China, in the origin of contemporary Citrus species (Rutaceae). 1990. Economic Botany, 44(2): 267-277.

Liu Z, Dong B, Liu C, Zong Y, Shao Y, Liu B & Yue H. 2020. Variation of anthocyanin content in fruits of wild and cultivated Lycium ruthenicum. Industrial Crops and Products, 146(2020) 112208. Https:// /j. indcrop.2020.112208.

Naveed, K., Shafiq, M. R., & Raza, A. (2023). Citrus tristeza virus: its research status and future prospects in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 35(2), 465-472.

Siddique MI, Garnevsk Elena M & Norman E. 2017. An Analysis of Marketing Channel Choice Decisions by Smallholder Citrus Growers. Australian Academy of Business and Economics Review, 1(1): 50-84.

Faostat F. 2016. Agriculture organization of the United Nations statistics division. Economic and Social Development Department, Rome, Italy. Available online: http://faostat3. fao. org/home/E.

Canteros BI, Gochez AM & Moschini RC. 2017. Management of citrus canker in Argentina, a success story. The plant pathology journal, 33(5): 441. https://doi: 10.5423/PPJ.RW.03.2017.0071.

Singh D & Thind SK. 2014. Prevalence, isolation, and standardization of growth media for Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri causing citrus canker. Plant Disease Research, 29(2): 188-192.

Derso E, Sijam K, Ahmad ZAM, Omar I & Napis S. 2007. Status of citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri in Peninsular Malaysia. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 9(1): 54-59.

Roeschlin RA, Favaro MA, Chiesa MA, Alemano S, Vojnov AA, Castagnaro AP, Filippone MP, Gmitter Jr, FG, Gadea J & Marano MR. 2017. Resistance to citrus canker induced by a variant of Xanthomonas citri ssp. Citri is associated with a hypersensitive cell death response involving autophagy‐associated vacuolar processes." Molecular plant pathology, 18(9): 1267-1281.

Li P, Ruan Z, Fei Z, Yan J & Tang G. 2021. Integrated Transcriptome and Metabolome Analysis Revealed That Flavonoid Biosynthesis May Dominate the Resistance of Zanthoxylum bungeanum against Stem Canker. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 203; 5453–5462,

Llop P, Caruso P, Cubero J, Morente C & Lopez MM. 1999. A simple extraction procedure for efficient routine detection of pathogenic bacteria in plant material by polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 37(1): 23-31.

Golmohammad M, Cubero J, Penalver J, Quesada JM, Lopez MM & Llop P. 2007. Diagnosis of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, causal agent of citrus canker, in commercial fruits by isolation and PCR-based methods. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 10(6): 2309-2315.

Cubero J & Graham JH. 2005. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for bacterial enumeration and allelic discrimination to differentiate Xanthomonas strains on citrus. Phytopathology, 95(11): 1333-1340.

Khan MA, Qais M, Ali Y, Aatif HM, Atiq M, Bashair M & Khan AA. 2020. GPS Based Surveillance and Chemothrerapeutic Management of Citrus Canker Disease and Leaf Miner in Relation to Prevailing Environmental Conditions in Sargodha District. International Journal of Biosciences. 16(3); 88-102.

Panche AN, Diwan AD & Chandra SR. 2016. Flavonoids: an overview. Journal of nutritional science, 5; 1-15. Https://doi:10.1017/jns.2016.41.

Breksa, AP & Manners GD. 2006. Evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of limonin, nomilin, and limonin glucoside. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 54(11): 3827-3831.

Jaganath IB & Crozier A. 2011. Flavonoid biosynthesis. Plant metabolism and biotechnology, 293-320.

Ghasemi K, Ghasemi Y & Ebrahimzadeh MA. 2009. Antioxidant activity, phenol, and flavonoid contents of 13 citrus species peels and tissues. Pak J. Pharm Science, 22(3): 277-281.

Ference CM, Manthey JA, Narciso JA, Jones JB & Baldwin EA. 2020. Detection of Phenylpropanoids in Citrus Leaves Produced in Response to Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri. Phytopathology, 110(2): 287-296.

Soares JM, Tanwir SE, Grosser JW & Dutt M. 2020. Development of genetically modified citrus plants for the control of citrus canker and huanglongbing. Tropical Plant Pathology, 45. 237-250.Https://

Cheng Y, Lin Y, Cao H & Li Z. 2020. Citrus postharvest green mold: Recent advances in fungal pathogenicity and fruit resistance. Microorganisms, 8(3); 449.

Kausik, S., Nath, B. C., Bhattacharyya, P. N., Kaman, P. K., Kashyap, A., Saikia, S., & Borah, P. K. 2024. Bioprospecting of citrus (Citrus L.) germplasms against citrus canker pathogenesis in Assam, North‐East India. Plant Breeding. 1-12.

Mabogoane, M., Augustyn, W., Tembu, V. J., Regnier, T., & du Plooy, W. (2024). Investigation into the role of phenolic compounds in the protection of citrus against Phyllosticta citricarpa. Metabolomics, 20(2), 27.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2024 Khadija Gilani, Rehana Badar, Nazia Kanwal, Asma ahmed, Samina Khurshid, Muqadas Asghar

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology
ISSN: 1019-763X (Print), 2305-0284 (Online).
© 2013 Pak. J. Phytopathol. All rights reserved.