A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON EXPLORING THE SIGNIFICANCE OF MYCOVIRUSES

Hafiz M. Sultan, Muhammad Zubair, Aneela Ashraf

Abstract


Mycoviruses are the viruses that infect fungi. The International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) categorizes mycoviruses into 23 viral families. Mycoviruses were discovered in the mushroom. For replication, they depend on their host, which includes plants and animals. The genomes of mycoviruses may contain double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and single-stranded RNA (ssRNA). The double-stranded RNA genome is more effective at spreading and infecting healthy fungi. They vary in diameter from 25 to 250nm. Some viruses take over the host machinery and cause abnormal growth. They can spread inside cells and form spores without moving proteins. Mycoviruses rely on intercellular transmission via hyphal anastomosis and lack extracellular transmission mechanisms, making it difficult for distinct fungus strains to transmit one another successfully. Mycovirus is significant because its three effects include hypovirulence, hypervirulence, and cryptic effects. The hypovirulence effects of mycovirus are very important because they reduce the host virulence and act as potential biocontrol against the fungi. Cryphonectria parasitica hypovirus 1 (CHV1) were found to have hypovirulent and were categorized as hypovirulent mycoviruses because it reduced the chestnut bight disease. Fusarium oxysporum ourmia-like virus 1 isolated from Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. momordicae, Bitter Gourd was found to be associated with hypovirulence. Mycoviruses that infect plant pathogenic fungi have the ability to reduce their host's virulence, making them potential biocontrol agents against these fungi. The hypervirulence type of mycoviruses increases their pathogenicity. Most of the mycoviruses have cryptic effects. This review focus is on mycoviruses, their effects on hosts, and the possible application of hypovirulence mycoviruses as biological control agents to lessen the fungus's virulence.


Keywords


Mycovirus, hypovirulence, hypervirulence, dsRNA, biocontrol, taxonomy, Virus fungi interactions

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