Tariq. A. Kareem, Shmaael S. Mutar, Eman K. A. Karim, Nawres S.A Kuwaiti


The inhibitory activity of polyphenolic compounds extracted from olive leaves was tested against F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum growth. Results showed phenolic and alcoholic extracts inhibited fungal growth by 70.6% and 66.75%, respectively, at 4000 ppm concentration. Olive leaves powder inhibited the growth by 47.50%. All treatments increased watermelon germination percentage after 7 days when scored 85% and 100% at 0.4% and 0.8% olive leaf powder concentrations, respectively. Alcoholic treated seeds at 4000 ppm scored 90% compared to pathogenic fungus treatment with 25% germination percent. Whereas the germination percentages were 90% and 100%, respectively for fungicide (Bltanol) and healthy control (untreated) treatments. All treatments could protect watermelon seedlings for continuous 35 days after planting.  The phenolic extract showed the highest vigour index values when scored 1616.7 and 1821.6 at the concentrations of 4000 and 8000 ppm, respectively. Whereas, alcoholic extract and olive leaf powder at scored 1332 and 1102.5 at concentration 8000 ppm and 0/8% respectively, compared to the pathogenic fungal and the fungicidal treatments with 360.5 and 896.8, respectively. These results indicated the effectiveness of the olive leaf extract in fungal growth inhibition. This study confirmed the presence of antifungal active substances in olive leaves against pathogenic fungi.


Anti-fungal activity, olive extracts, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum, Watermelon.

Full Text:



Anonymous. 2016. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2016. OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2016-2025 (Chinese version). OECD Publishing.p.1-133.

Bisignano, G., A. Tomaino, R. L. Cascio, G. Crisafi, N. Uccella and A. Saija. 1999. On the In-vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Oleuropein and Hydroxytyrosol. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 51: 971-974.

Bowers, J. H. and J. C. Locke. 2000. Effect of Botanical Extracts on the Population Density ofFusarium oxysporumin Soil and Control of Fusarium Wilt in the Greenhouse. Plant Disease, 84: 300-305.

Carling, D. E. 1986. Isolation and Characterization ofRhizoctonia solaniand BinucleateR. solani-like Fungi from Aerial Stems and Subterranean Organs of Potato Plants. Phytopathology, 76: 725-729

Cary, N. 2012. Statistical Analysis System, User's Guide. Statistical. Version 9.SAS. Inst. Inc. USA.

Christopher, D. J., T. S. Raj, S. U. Rani and R. Udhayakumar. 2010. Role of defense enzymes activity in tomato as induced by Trichoderma virens against Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f sp. lycopersici. Journal of Biopesticides, 3: 158-162.

Friedman, M. 2007. Overview of antibacterial, antitoxin, antiviral, and antifungal activities of tea flavonoids and teas. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 51: 116-134.

Haris Omar, S. 2010. Oleuropein in Olive and its Pharmacological Effects. Scientia Pharmaceutica, 78: 133-154.

Kurowski C., K. Conn, J. Lutton and S. Rosenberger. 2015. Cucurbit disease field guide: a disease reference guide for cucumber, melon squash and watermelon. p.1-124

Lee-Huang, S., L. Zhang, P. Lin Huang, Y.-T. Chang and P. L. Huang. 2003. Anti-HIV activity of olive leaf extract (OLE) and modulation of host cell gene expression by HIV-1 infection and OLE treatment. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 307: 1029-1037.

Lee-Huang, S., P. L. Huang, D. Zhang, J. W. Lee, J. Bao, Y. Sun, Y.-T. Chang, J. Zhang and P. L. Huang. 2007. Discovery of small-molecule HIV-1 fusion and integrase inhibitors oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol: Part I. Integrase inhibition. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 354: 872-878.

Malik, N. S. and J. M. Bradford. 2008. Recovery and stability of oleuropein and other phenolic compounds during extraction and processing of olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment. 6:1-8.

Michele H. and V. Andrew. 2002. Olive Leaf Extract Potent Antibacterial, Antiviral and Antifungal Agent. Gold golf Pty. Ltd., Queensland, Australia. Edition 1st.

Okwu, D. 2004. Phytochemical and vitamin content of indigenous spices of South Eastern Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture and Environment, 6: 30-34.

Parmeter Jr, J. 1970. Taxonomy and nomenclature of the imperfect state. Rhizoctonia solani, biology and pathology: JR Parmeter (Jr.)(Ed.) Univ. of California, Press, Berkeley, pp.7-19.

Proestos, C., N. Chorianopoulos, G. J. E. Nychas and M. Komaitis. 2005. RP-HPLC Analysis of the Phenolic Compounds of Plant Extracts. Investigation of Their Antioxidant Capacity and Antimicrobial Activity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53: 1190-1195.

Rongai, D., P. Pulcini, B. Pesce and F. Milano. 2015. Antifungal activity of some botanical extracts on Fusarium oxysporum. Open Life Sciences, 10: 409-416.

Soni, M. G., G. A. Burdock, M. S. Christian, C. M. Bitler and R. Crea. 2006. Safety assessment of aqueous olive pulp extract as an antioxidant or antimicrobial agent in foods. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 44: 903-915.

Summerell, B. A., B. Salleh and J. F. Leslie. 2003. A Utilitarian Approach to Fusarium Identification. Plant Disease, 87: 117-128.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Nawres Al-Kuwaiti

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology
ISSN: 1019-763X (Print), 2305-0284 (Online).
© 2013 Pak. J. Phytopathol. All rights reserved.