Saipul Abbas, Sri Sulandari, Sedyo Hartono, Itji D. Daud, Ernawati Djaya, Jumardin .


Rice plants are one of the important commodities for the livelihoods of people all over the world, including in South Sulawesi. However, rice plants often suffer from virus infections which can cause production losses and reduced quality. Mixed viral infections in rice plants in South Sulawesi have been detected through RT-PCR analysis. The results showed that the rice plant samples were infected by several types of viruses, including Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV), Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV), Rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV), Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV), and Rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV). The detected virus DNA molecule sizes varied between 195-1764 bp in different samples. This finding highlights the importance of considering mixed viral infections in rice plants in South Sulawesi as a significant issue. The determination of the type of viruses and the infection level is crucial in determining an effective control strategy and minimizing rice production losses. Preventive measures, such as maintaining the cleanliness of the planting location, destroying infected plants, and planting virus-resistant varieties, are necessary to prevent the spread of these viruses.


Mixed viral infections, RT-PCR, rice viruses, South Sulawesi

Full Text:



Ahmed, N. E. 2021. EgyGene GelAnalyzer4: a powerful image analysis software for one-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, 19: 1-7.

Angeli, L., F. Conversano, A. Dall'Asta, T. Eggebø, N. Volpe, S. Marta, P. Pisani, S. Casciaro, M. D. Paola, T. Frusca and T. Ghi. 2022. Automatic measurement of head-perineum distance during intrapartum ultrasound: description of the technique and preliminary results. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, 35: 2759-2764.

Asuero, A. G., A. Sayago and A. G. González. 2006. The correlation coefficient: An overview. Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry, 36: 41-59.

Blanc, S. and Y. Michalakis. 2016. Manipulation of hosts and vectors by plant viruses and impact of the environment. Current Opinion in Insect Science, 16:36-43.

Borst, A., A. T. A. Box and A. C. Fluit. 2004. False-positive results and contamination in nucleic acid amplification assays: suggestions for a prevent and destroy strategy. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 23: 289-299.

Cabauatan, P. Q., U. Melcher, K. Ishikawa, T. Omura, H. Hibino, H. Koganezawa and O. Azzam. 1999. Sequence changes in six variants of rice tungro bacilliform virus and their phylogenetic relationships. Journal of General Virology, 80: 2229-2237.

Chen, Q., M. A. Wu, Z. J. Wu and L. H. Xie. 2010. Phylogenetic evidence for origin and evolution of rice rigged stunt virus. Institute of Plant Virology, Fujian Agricultural and Forestry University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002, P.R. China.

Cho, S. Y., R. D. Jeong, Y. N. Yoon, S. H. Lee, D. B. Shin, H. W. Kang and B. C. Lee. 2013. One-step multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the simultaneous detection of three rice viruses. Journal of Virological Methods, 193: 674-678.

Elert, E. 2014. Rice by the numbers: A good grain. Nature, 514:S50-S51

Faller C., S. Ragupathy, D. Shanmughanandhan, Y. Zhang, Z. Lu, P. Chang, G. Swanson and S. G. Newmaster. 2019. DNA quality and quantity analysis of Camellia sinensis through processing from fresh leaves to a green tea extract. Journal of AOAC International, 102: 1798-1807.

Fereres, A. and A. Moreno. 2009. Behavioural aspects influencing plant virus transmission by homopteran insects. Virus Research, 141: 158-168.

Fernandes, V., C. Mangolin, A. Neves, F. S. Nogueira, H. Z. Neto and M. Machado. 2020. Extraction of total protein from shoots of Cereus morphological variants (Cactaceae) for proteomic analysis. Advances in Horticultural Science, 34: 233-241.

Green, M. R. and J. Sambrook. 2019. Polymerase chain reaction. Cold Spring Harbor Protocols, 2019:095-109.

Helina, S., S. Sulandari, S. Hartono and Y. A. Trisyono. 2019. Detection and analysis of protein profile on rice infected by stunting virus with different severity on ciherang and situ bagendit varieties. Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia, 23: 116-124.

Hogenhout, S. A., E. D. Ammar, A. E. Whitfield and M. G. Redinbaugh. 2008. Insect vector interactions with persistently transmitted viruses. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 46: 327-359.

IRRI, A. 2010. Global Rice Science Partnership (GRiSP). Council for Partnership on Rice Research in Asia: Metro Manila, Philippines.

Khush, G. S. 2005. What it will take to feed 5.0 billion rice consumers in 2030. Plant Molecular Biology, 59: 1-6.

Le, D. T., O. Netsu, T. Uehara-Ichiki, T. Shimizu, I. R. Choi, T. Omura and T. Sasaya. 2010. Molecular detection of nine rice viruses by a reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay. Journal of Virological Methods, 170: 90-93.

Liu, Z. Q. and X. D. Li. 2012. Department of Plant Pathology, Shandong Agricultural University, No. 61, Daizong Street, Tai'an, Shandong 271018, China.

Lorenz, T. C. 2012. Polymerase chain reaction: basic protocol plus troubleshooting and optimization strategies. Journal of Visualized Experiments. 22: 3998.

Moradi, A., S. A. Aleyasin, K. Mohammadian and A. Alizamir. 2022. Epigenteic alteration of DOK7 gene CpG island in blood leukocyte of patients with gastric cancer and intestinal methaplasia. Iranian Journal of Biotechnology, 20: 99-103.

Nam, N., N. Hung, C. Ha, H. Hang and L. Binh. 2007. Genetic variations in rice grassy stunt virus strains isolate from cuu long river delta provinces. Tap chi cong nghe sinh hoc, 5: 479-484.

Okasha, H., S. M. Nasr and S. Samir. 2021. Recombinant expression of cec-B peptide in Escherichia coli with a significant anticancer effect on Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, 22: 1235-1245.

Satoh, K., K. Yoneyama, H. Kondoh, T. Shimizu, T. Sasaya, I. R. Choi, K. Yoneyama, T. Omura and S. Kikuchi. 2013. Relationship between gene responses and symptoms induced by Rice grassy stunt virus. Frontiers in Microbiology, 18: 313-313.

Schneider, A., G. Hommel and M. Blettner. 2010. Linear regression analysis: part 14 of a series on evaluation of scientific publications. Deutsches Ärzteblatt International, 107: 776-782.

Sharma, S. and I. Dasgupta. 2012. Development of SYBR green I based real-time PCR assays for quantitative detection of Rice tungro bacilliform virus and Rice tungro spherical virus. Journal of Virological Methods, 181: 86-92.

Shen, P., M. Kaniewska, C. Smith and R. N. Beachy. 1993. Nucleotide sequence and genomic organization of Rice tungro spherical virus. Virology, 193: 621-630.

Silva, D., G. Santos, M. Barroca and T. Collins. 2017. Inverse PCR for point mutation introduction. Methods in Molecular Biology. Springer New York, pp. 87-100.

Srilatha, P., F. Yousuf, R. Methre, T. Vishnukiran, S. Agarwal, Y. Poli, M. Raghurami Reddy, B. Vidyasagar, C. Shanker, D. Krishnaveni, S. Triveni, Brajendra, S. Praveen, S. M. Balachandran, D. Subrahmanyam and S. K. Mangrauthia. 2019. Physical interaction of RTBV ORFI with D1 protein of Oryza sativa and Fe/Zn homeostasis play a key role in symptoms development during rice tungro disease to facilitate the insect mediated virus transmission. Virology, 526: 117-124.

Stone, D. and J. Ellis. 2003. Calibration and linear regression analysis: A self-guided tutorial. CHM314 instrumental analysis; Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto: Toronto, ON, Canada.

Syrmis, M. W., D. M. Whiley, M. Thomas, I. M. Mackay, J. Williamson, D. J. Siebert, M. D. Nissen and T. P. Sloots. 2004. A sensitive, specific, and cost-effective multiplex reverse transcriptase-PCR assay for the detection of seven common respiratory viruses in respiratory samples. The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics, 6: 125-131.

Tong, Y., B. Lemieux and H. Kong. 2011. Multiple strategies to improve sensitivity, speed and robustness of isothermal nucleic acid amplification for rapid pathogen detection. BMC Biotechnology, 11: 50.

Uehara-Ichiki, T., T. Shiba, K. Matsukura, T. Ueno, M. Hirae and T. Sasaya. 2013. Detection and diagnosis of rice-infecting viruses. Frontiers in Microbiology, 4: 289-289.

Wang, P., J. Liu, Y. Lyu, Z. Huang, X. Zhang, B. Sun, P. Li, X. Jing, H. Li and C. Zhang. 2022. A review of vector-borne rice viruses. Viruses, 14: 2258-2262.

Wijaya, Y. O. S., E. T. E. Niba, M. A. Rochmah, N. I. F. Harahap, H. Awano, Y. Takeshima, T. Saito, K. Saito, A. Takeuchi and P. San Lai. 2019. Nested PCR amplification secures DNA template quality and quantity in real-time mCOP-PCR screening for SMA. Kobe Journal of Medical Sciences, 65: E54.

Wutke, S. and A. Ludwig. 2019. Targeted PCR amplification and multiplex sequencing of ancient DNA for SNP analysis. Methods in Molecular Biology. Springer New York, pp. 141-147.

Zhou, G., D. Xu, D. Xu and M. Zhang. 2013. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus: a white-backed planthopper-transmitted fijivirus threatening rice production in Asia. Frontiers in Microbiology, 4: 270-270.



Copyright (c) 2023 Saipul Abbas, Sri Sulandari, Sedyo Hartono, Jumardin Jumardin

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology
ISSN: 1019-763X (Print), 2305-0284 (Online).
© 2013 Pak. J. Phytopathol. All rights reserved.