Eman A.A. Alam, Ahmed S.M. El.Nuby


Aqueous and organic (methanol and ethanol) extracts of different plant parts of Moringa oleifera were investigated phytochemically, additionally, nematicidal activities of these extracts against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita were estimated also. Results of preliminary phytochemical screening on boiling water extracts of different plant parts of Moringa oleifera revealed the presence of all investigated phytochemicals including; flavonoids, anthraquinones, steroids and/triterpenoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids and/or nitrogenous bases, carbohydrates and/or glycosides, cardiac glycosides, chlorides, sulphates, iridoids and sublimable substances in most samples. Regarding extracts of fresh samples; it was found that both extracts of mature and immature seeds and fruits, in addition to stems are the richest extracts regarding all investigated phytochemicals. Meanwhile, concerning extracts of dry samples; it was noticed that both extracts of leaf blades and immature fruits are the richest extracts regarding all investigated phytochemicals, followed by stems in this regard. It was noticed also that all samples are devoid of iridoids. On the other hand, results of preliminary phytochemical screening on methanol extracts of different plant parts revealed the presence of all investigated phytochemicals in all samples under investigation (except extracts of both fresh and dry leaf blades, leaf petioles and stems are devoid of saponins). Concerning extracts of fresh samples; it was found that both extracts of mature and immature seeds and fruits are the richest extracts regarding all investigated phytochemicals. Meanwhile, regarding extracts of dry samples; it was noticed that both extracts of mature and immature fruits, leaf blades and leaf petioles are rich in all investigated phytochemicals, followed by stems in this regard. Preliminary phytochemical screening on ethanol extracts of different plant parts revealed that all of these extracts contained all investigated phytochemicals, but in the least amounts compared to other extracts (except extracts of both fresh and dry leaf blades, leaf petioles and stems are devoid totally of saponins). Regarding extracts of fresh samples; it was found that both extracts of mature and immature seeds and fruits are the richest extracts regarding all investigated phytochemicals. Meanwhile, regarding extracts of dry samples; it was noticed that both extracts of mature and immature fruits are rich in all investigated phytochemicals. Concerning total phenolic contents, it was found that regarding extracts of fresh samples; the highest amount was recorded to be in both leaf blades and stems (20.243±0.025 and 20.083±0.020, respectively), the least amount was recorded to be in immature fruits (5.251±0.005). In this regard; total flavonoidal contents reached its maximum in mature fruits, followed by leaf blades (5.481±0.005 and 5.326±0.006, respectively), the least amount was recorded to be in mature seeds (0.050±0.001). On the other hand, concerning total phenolic contents in case of extracts of dry samples; the highest amount was recorded to be in both leaf petioles and stems (22.000±0.023 and 21.451±0.025, respectively), the least amount was recorded to be in immature fruits (8.029±0.015). In this regard also; total flavonoidal contents reached its maximum in leaf blades (6.111±0.012), the least amount was recorded to be in immature seeds (0.093±0.001). Results also indicated that most extracts adversely affect the second stage juveniles (J2s) survive as they recorded mortality percentages ranged between 2.7 to 100%. Aqueous extracts in general were achieved the best results, extracts of all investigated seven parts can kill more than 50% of J2s. Extraction with methanol showing efficacy lower than water, but the fresh Immature fruit showing mortality similar to aqueous extract, meanwhile the rest parts of the plant gave mortality percentages not exceed than 33.7%. the lowest antinematodal activity was belonging to ethanol extracts of fresh and dried parts of the plant compared with other solvents. In this respect, the efficient extracts are water extracts, followed by methanolic and ethanolic extracts, those contain the lower amounts of these investigated phytochemicals. These results of nematicidal activities of all tested extracts are confirming those of phytochemical analyses. It was concluded that, nematicidal activity of those investigated extracts are positively correlated with the presence of considerable amount of phytochemicals.


Moringa oleifera L., Plant extracts, Total phenolics, Total flavonoids, Preliminary phytochemical screening, Nematicidal activity.

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