Muhammad U. Ghazanfar, Asfand Y. Ali, Waqas Raza, Waqas Wakil, Muhammad A. Ahmad, Hafiz M.A Ayoub


Sheath blight (ShB) of rice caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn is the most vital disease this is a serious issue in high-yielding rice production systems. It is a significant issue with the rice producing system's high yielding types. The pathogen has a very wide host range and due to non-availability of resistant cultivars, the management of ShB primarily depends upon chemical control while the chemical control is not eco-friendly and is also dangerous for human health. However, the disease can be managed with botanical pesticides and biological agents. This study was planned with the objective to manage this disease with eco-friendly approaches. Different species of Trichoderma and plant extracts were evaluated under the laboratory conditions with dual culture technique and poisoned food technique respectively. Results showed that all bio-controls and plant extracts significantly inhibited mycelial growth of R. solani at different exposure intervals (5, 10 and 15 day) (P<0.05). In fungal bio-control, the highest percent inhibition was given by T. harzianum followed by T. atroviride on all incubation intervals. The lowest percent inhibition was 55%, 69 and 79% given by T. viride. All plant extracts significantly inhibited the mycelium growth of R. solani (P<0.05). Maximum percent inhibition was observed in case of neem followed by garlic, eucalyptus, and the minimum percent inhibition was exhibited by mint on 5, 10 and 15 days of incubation intervals.


Plant extracts; inhibition; mycelial growth; R. solani; S. oryzae.

Full Text:



Abdel-Fattah, G. M., Y. M. Shabana, A. E. Ismail and Y. M. Rashed. 2007. Trichoderma harzianum: a biocontrol agent against Bipolaris oryzae. Mycopathologia, 164(2): 81-89.

Anees, M., A. Tronsmo, V. Edel-Hermann, L. G. Hjeljord and C. Steinberg. 2010. Characterization of field isolates of Trichoderma antagonistic against Rhizoctonia solani. Fungal Biology, 114(9): 691-701.

Arshi, H.A and S. Nasreen. 2016. Isolation and identification of fungi from soil samples of different sites in Aurangabad city, India. International Journal of Science Research, 5: 419.

Brewer, M. T. and R. P. Larkin. 2005. Efficacy of several potential biocontrol organisms against Rhizoctonia solani on potato. Crop Protection, 24(11): 939-950.

Chang, D. C. N. and L. C. Chou. 2007. Growth responses, enzyme activities, and component changes as influenced by Rhizoctonia orchid mycorrhiza on Anoectochilus formosanus Hayata. Botanical Studies, 48: 445-451.

Choudhury, D., Y. R. Anand, S. Kundu, R. Nath, R. K. Kole and J. Saha. 2017. Effect of plant extracts against sheath blight of rice caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Journal of Pharmacogn Phytochem, 6(4): 399-404.

Cohen, Y., A. Baider, B. B. Daniel and Y. B. Daniel. 2002. Fungicidal preparations from Inula viscose. In: 10th International Conference on Cultivation Technique and Phytopathological Problems in Organic Fruit-Growing and Viticulture. Proceedings to the Conference, 4th to 7th February 2002 at Weinsberg, Germany. pp. 152-156.

Dar, W. A., M. A. Beig, S. A. Ganie, J. A. Bhat, S. U. Rehman and S. M. Razvi. 2013. In vitro study of fungicides and biocontrol agents against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pini causing root rot of Western Himalayan fir (Abies pindrow). Scientific Research and Essays, 8(30): 1407-1412.

Devi, O. J. and G. K. N. Chhetry. 2013. Evaluation of antifungal properties of certain plants against Drechslera oryzae causing brown leaf spot of rice in Manipur valley. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 3(5): 18.

Druzhinina, I. and C. P. Kubicek. 2005. Species concepts and biodiversity in Trichoderma and Hypocrea: from aggregate species to species clusters. Journal of Zhejiang University-Science B, 6(2): 100-107.

Druzhinina, I. S., V. S. Seiboth, A. H. Estrella, B. A. Horwitz, C. M. Kenerley, E. Monte, P. K. Mukherjee, S. Zeilinger, I. V. Grigoriev and Christian P. Kubicek. 2011. Trichoderma: the genomics of opportunistic success. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 9(10):749-759.

Fokkema, N. J. 1973. The role of saprophytic fungi in antagonism against Drechslera sorokiniana (Helminthosporium sativum) on agar plates and on rye leaves with pollen. Physiological Plant Pathology, 3(2): 195-205.

Forseille, L., G. Peng, B. D. Gossen, Y. D. Wei. 2009. Further evidence for host specificity of Colletotrichum truncatum from scentless chamomile. Canadian journal of Plant Pathology, 31(3): 301-308.

Gajera, H. P., D.G. Hirpara, Z. A. Katakpara, S. V. Patel and B. A. Golakiya. 2016. Molecular evolution and phylogenetic analysis of biocontrol genes acquired from SCoT polymorphism of mycoparasitic Trichoderma koningii inhibiting phytopathogen Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 45: 383-392.

IRRI, A. 2010. Global Rice Science Partnership (GRiSP). Council for Partnership on Rice Research in Asia: Metro Manila, Philippines.

Johnson, M., P. N. Reddy and D. R. Reddy. 2008. Effective management of stem rot of groundnut through application of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 16(2): 428-432.

Kucuk, C. and M. Kivanc. 2004. Isolation of Trichoderma spp. and determination of their antifungal, biochemical and physiological features. Turkish Journal of Biology, 27(4): 247-253.

Lewis, J. A. and R. D. Lumsden. 2001. Biocontrol of damping-off of greenhouse-grown crops caused by Rhizoctonia solani with a formulation of Trichoderma spp. Crop Protection, 20(1): 49-56.

Margani, R and S. Widadi. 2018. Utilizing Bacillus to inhibit the growth and infection by sheath blight pathogen, Rhizoctonia solani in rice. In: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 142(1): 12-19.

Narasimhan, S., S. Masilamani and B. Muralidharan. 1998. Laboratory evaluation of botanical formulation against blast, brown spot and sheath blight disease of rice. Pestology, 22(11): 19.

Norman, R. J., C. E. Wilson and N. A. Slaton. 2003. Soil fertilization and mineral nutrition in US mechanized rice culture. Rice: Origin, History, Technology and Production, 331-411.

Ogoshi, A. 1996. Introduction-the genus Rhizoctonia. In: Rhizoctonia species: Taxonomy, Molecular Biology, Ecology, Pathology and Disease Control. Springer, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 1-9.

Oloumi, H. 2014. Phytochemistry and ethno-pharmaceutics of Calotropis procera. Ethno-Pharmaceutical Products, 1(2): 1-8.

Qin, Z. and M. Zhang. 2005. Detection of rice sheath blight for in-season disease management using multispectral remote sensing. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 7(2): 115-128.

Rather, T. R., V. K. Razdan, A. K. Tewari, E. Shanaz, Z. A. Bhat, M. G. Hassan and T. A. Wani. 2012. Integrated management of wilt complex disease in bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Journal of Agricultural Science, 4(7): 141-147.

Russell, P. E. and A. E. A. Mussa. 1977. The use of garlic (Allium sativum) extracts to control foot rot of Phaseolus vulgaris caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli. Annals of Applied Biology, 86(3): 369-372.

Seema, M. and N. S. Devaki. 2010. Effect of some essential oils on Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn infecting flue-cured Virginia tobacco. Journal of Biopesticides, 3(3): 563-566.

Shaikh, F. M., M. B. Jamali, K. Shaikh and A. R. Abdi 2011. WTO reforms and rice market in Pakistan. International Journal Asian Social Science, 1(3): 45-51.

Smolinska, U. and B. Kowalska. 2018. Biological control of the soil-borne fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum –– a review. Journal of Plant Pathology, 100(1): 1-12.

Srinivas, P., V. Ratan, P. N. Reddy, G. B. Madhavi. 2014. In-vitro evaluation of fungicides, biocontrol agents and plant extracts against rice sheath blight pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology, 5(1): 121-126.

Srinivasachary, W. L. and S. Savary. 2011. Resistance to rice sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn.) [(teleomorph: thanatophorus cucumeris (A.B. Frank) Donk.] disease: Current status and perspectives. Euphytica, 178: 1-22.

Strakowska, J., L. Błaszczyk and J. Chełkowski. 2014. The significance of cellulolytic enzymes produced by Trichoderma in opportunistic lifestyle of this fungus. Journal of Basic Microbiology, 54(1): 2-13.

Sultana, N. and A. Ghaffar. 2013. Effect of fungicides, microbial antagonists and oil cakes in the control of Fusarium oxysporum, the cause of seed rot and root infection of bottle gourd and cucumber. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 45(6): 2149-2156.

Tang, Q., S. Peng, R. J. Buresh, Y. Zou, N. P. Castilla, T. W. Mew and X. Zhong. 2007. Rice varietal difference in sheath blight development and its association with yield loss at different levels of N fertilization. Field Crops Research, 102(3): 219-227.

Tiwari, R. K. S., S. S. Chandravanshi and B. M. Ojha. 2005. Efficacy of extracts of medicinal plant species on growth of Sclerotium rolfsii root rot in tomato. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 34(2): 461-464.

Tsiboe, F., L. L. Nalley, A. Durand, G. Thoma and A. Shew. 2017. The economic and environmental benefits of sheath blight resistance in rice. Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 215-235.

Wu, W., J. Huang, K. Cui, L. Nie, Q. Wang, F. Yang, F. Shah, F. Yao and S. Peng. 2012. Sheath blight reduces stem breaking resistance and increases lodging susceptibility of rice plants. Field Crops Research, 128: 101-108.

Yogi, B., S. K. Gupta and A. Mishra. 2016. Calotropis procera (Madar): A medicinal plant of various therapeutic uses ‒ A review. Bulletin of Environment, Pharmacology and Life Sciences, 5(7): 74-81.

Zheng, A., R. Lin, D. Zhang, P. Qin, L. Xu, P. Ai, L. Ding, Y. Wang, Y. Chen, Y. Liu, Z. Sun, H. Feng and P. Li. 2013. The evolution and pathogenic mechanisms of the rice sheath blight pathogen. Nature Communications, 4(1): 1-10.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Waqas Raza

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology
ISSN: 1019-763X (Print), 2305-0284 (Online).
© 2013 Pak. J. Phytopathol. All rights reserved.