Malik H. Karem, Ali A. A. Haidery


Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench, more often known as okra, is a popular and widely consumed vegetable that belongs to the Malvaceae family. It is rich in a variety of essential nutrients, including carbohydrates, proteins, and vitamins. The okra yellow vein mosaic disease (OYVMD) is one of numerous biotic and abiotic variables that pose a danger to okra productivity. In order to investigate the impact of amino acid treatments and algal extracts on inducing systemic resistance in okra against the Okra yellow vein mosaic virus, an experiment was carried out in the fields in the western areas of Samawa City-Muthanna Governorate, Iraq (OYVMV). Research on the impact of the virus found that amino acid and algal extract treatments were most effective, leading to the fewest number of infected okra plants. Peroxidase enzyme, superoxide dismutase, and catalase levels were highest in those who received a combination of amino acids and algal extract. The duration of 14 days was also longer than the spans of 7 and 21 days. While amino acid and algal extract therapy for 21 days had the highest total phenolic concentration, it also had the most negative effects.


Okra yellow vein mosaic virus, Algal extract, Amino acids, DAS-ELISA.

Full Text:



Ali, N., A. Farrell, A. Ramsubhag and J. Jayaraman. 2016. The effect of Ascophyllum nodosum extract on the growth, yield and fruit quality of tomato grown under tropical conditions. Journal of Applied Phycology, 28: 1353-1362.

Ali, O., A. Ramsubhag and J. Jayaraman. 2019. Biostimulatory activities of Ascophyllum nodosum extract in tomato and sweet pepper crops in a tropical environment. PLoS One, 14: e0216710.

Ali, S., M. A. Khan, M. A. Zeshan and M. Usman. 2014. Eco-friendly approaches for the management of okra yellow vein mosaic virus disease (OYVMVD) incidence. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 26: 113-116.

Al-Shammary, A. M., F. M. Suhal and A. A. Khmias. 2018. Effect of treatment with bio-fertilizers and chemical fertilizers in: 2-some yield quantative characters of three varieties of Okra. Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, 10: 100-113.

Betti, L., A. Canova, M. Paolini, A. Merendino and P. Maini. 1992. Effects of foliar application of an amino-acid-based biostimulant on the response of pepper seedlings to PepMV infection. Effects of foliar application of an amino-acid-based biostimulant on the response of pepper seedlings to PepMV infection. Advances in Horticulture Science, 1992: 1000-1007.

Calvo, P., L. Nelson and J. W. Kloepper. 2014. Agricultural uses of plant biostimulants. Plant and soil, 383: 3-41.

CI, K. C. and G. Indira. 2016. Quantitative estimation of total phenolic, flavonoids, tannin and chlorophyll content of leaves of Strobilanthes Kunthiana (Neelakurinji). Journal of Medicinal Plants, 4: 282-286.

Clark, M. F. and A. Adams. 1977. Characteristics of the microplate method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of plant viruses. Journal of General Virology, 34: 475-483.

Diaz-Lara, A., K. Stevens, V. Klaassen, D. Golino and M. Al Rwahnih. 2020. Comprehensive real-time RT-PCR assays for the detection of fifteen viruses infecting Prunus spp. Plants, 9: 273-285.

EBIC Biostimulants—A sector born from industry convergence and sustainability-driven innovation. In Position on the Revision of Reg (EC) 2003/20031; European Biostimulants Industry Consortium: Antwerp, Belgium; L’Haÿ-les-Roses, France.

Fekrat, L. and P. Shishehbor. 2007. Some biological features of cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on various host plants. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 10: 3180-3184.

Hadwan, M. H. and S. kadhum Ali. 2018. New spectrophotometric assay for assessments of catalase activity in biological samples. Analytical Biochemistry, 542: 29-33.

Hussain, M. A. and T. Mukhtar. 2019. Root-knot nematodes infecting okra in major vegetable growing districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 51: 1137-1144.

Hussain, M. A., T. Mukhtar and M. Z. Kayani. 2014. Characterization of susceptibility and resistance responses to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) infection in okra germplasm. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 51: 309-314.

Hussain, M. A., T. Mukhtar and M. Z. Kayani. 2016. Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on resistant and susceptible okra cultivars. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 53: 371-375.

Hussain, M. A., T. Mukhtar, M. Z. Kayani, M. N. Aslam and M. Haque. 2012. A survey of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) in the Punjab province of Pakistan for the determination of prevalence, incidence and severity of root-knot disease caused by Meloidogyne spp. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 44: 2071-2075.

Hussain, M., T. Mukhtar and M. Kayani. 2011. Assessment of the damage caused by Meloidogyne incognita on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 21: 857-861.

Jayaraj, J., A. Wan, M. Rahman and Z. Punja. 2008. Seaweed extract reduces foliar fungal diseases on carrot. Crop Protection, 27: 1360-1366.

Jayaraman, J., J. Norrie and Z. K. Punja. 2011. Commercial extract from the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum reduces fungal diseases in greenhouse cucumber. Journal of Applied Phycology, 23: 353-361.

Kassi, A. K., H. Javed and T. Mukhtar. 2018. Screening of okra cultivars for resistance against Helicoverpa armigera. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 50: 91-95.

Kumar, H. D. and P. Aloke. 2020. Role of biostimulant formulations in crop production: An overview. International Journal of Applied Research and Veterinary Medicine, 8: 38-46.

Lacroix, C., K. Renner, E. Cole, E. W. Seabloom, E. T. Borer and C. M. Malmstrom. 2016. Methodological guidelines for accurate detection of viruses in wild plant species. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 82: 1966-1975.

Magnani, L., E. M. Gaydou and J. C. Hubaud. 2000. Spectrophotometric measurement of antioxidant properties of flavones and flavonols against superoxide anion. Analytica Chimica Acta, 411: 209-216.

Mohanta, R., R. Nath, N. K. Jena and A. Mishra. 2020. Effect of different dates of sowing and weather parameters on vector whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius) and incidence of yellow vein mosaic disease in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench). Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 8: 1774-1784.

Mubeen, M., Y. Iftikhar, A. Abbas, M. Abbas, M. Zafar-ul-Hye, A. Sajid and F. Bakhtawar. 2021. Yellow Vein Mosaic Disease in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.): An Overview on Causal Agent, Vector and Management. Phyton, 90: 1573-1579.

Mubeen, M., Y. Iftikhar, M. I. Ullah, Q. Shakeel, M. Aatif and I. Bilqees. 2017. Incidence of Okra Yellow Vein Mosaic disease in relation to insect vector and environmental factors. Environment & Ecology, 35: 2215-2220.

Mukhtar, T. and M. A. Hussain. 2019. Pathogenic Potential of Javanese Root-knot Nematode on Susceptible and Resistant Okra Cultivars. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 51: 1891-1897.

Mukhtar, T., I. Arshad, M. Z. Kayani, M. A. Hussain, S. B. Kayani, A. M. Rahoo and M. Ashfaq. 2013. Estimation of damage to okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) by root-knot disease incited by Meloidogyne incognita. Pak.istan Journal of Botany, 45: 1023-1027.

Mukhtar, T., M. A. Hussain and M. Z. Kayani. 2017. Yield responses of 12 okra cultivars to southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). Bragantia, 76: 108-112.

Mukhtar, T., M. A. Hussain, M. Z. Kayani and M. N. Aslam. 2014. Evaluation of resistance to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in okra cultivars. Crop Protection, 56: 25-30.

Mukhtar, T., M. A. hussain and M. Z. kayani. 2013. Biocontrol potential of Pasteuria penetrans, Pochonia chlamydosporia, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma harzianum against Meloidogyne incognita in okra. Phytopathologia Mediterranea: 66-76.

Pitotti, A., B. E. Elizalde and M. Anese. 1994. Effect of caramelization and Maillard reaction products on peroxidase activity. Journal of Food Biochemistry, 18: 445-457.

Radkowski, A., I. Radkowska, J. Bocianowski, T. Sladkovska and K. Wolski. 2020. The effect of foliar application of an amino acid-based biostimulant on lawn functional value. Agronomy, 10: 1656.

Ramkissoon, A., A. Ramsubhag and J. Jayaraman. 2017. Phytoelicitor activity of three Caribbean seaweed species on suppression of pathogenic infections in tomato plants. Journal of Applied Phycology, 29: 3235-3244.

Rayorath, P., M. N. Jithesh, A. Farid, W. Khan, R. Palanisamy, S. D. Hankins, A. T. Critchley and B. Prithiviraj. 2008. Rapid bioassays to evaluate the plant growth promoting activity of Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jol. using a model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Journal of Applied Phycology, 20: 423-429.

Venkataravanappa, V., C. Lakshminarayana Reddy, S. Jalali and M. Krishna Reddy. 2012. Molecular characterization of distinct bipartite begomovirus infecting bhendi (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) in India. Virus Genes, 44: 522-535.

Wasala, S., S. I. Senevirathne, J. B. Senanayake and A. Navoditha. 2019. Genetic analysis of Okra Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus disease resistance in wild relative of okra Abelmoschus angulosus Wall. ex Wight & Arn. Plant Genetic Resources, 17: 346-351.

Yakhin, O. I., A. A. Lubyanov, I. A. Yakhin and P. H. Brown. 2017. Biostimulants in plant science: a global perspective. Frontiers in Plant Science, 7: 2049-2055.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Malik H. Karem, Ali Ajil Al-Haidery

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology
ISSN: 1019-763X (Print), 2305-0284 (Online).
© 2013 Pak. J. Phytopathol. All rights reserved.