Eman A. A. Alam, Ahmed S.M. El-Nuby


Preliminary phytochemical screening on boiling water extracts of some known effective parts of three anthelmintic plants; Commiphora myrrha (Gum), Cassia fistula (Mature Pods) and Citrullus colocynthis (Mature Fruits); (1 ml of each extract = 50 mg/g Dry Weight) was done and all the obtained results showed the presence of flavonoids, anthraquinones, steroids and/triterpenoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids and/or nitrogenous bases, carbohydrates and/or glycosides, cardiac glycosides, chlorides, sulphates, iridoids and sublimable substances in most samples. Cassia fistula boiling water extract' was found to be the richest extract regarding all investigated phytochemicals, so it was selected for further analyses. Preliminary phytochemical screening Results' of different extracts of examined plant parts of Cassia fistula indicated the presence of all investigated phytochemicals in most samples; with special reference to boiling water extracts of mature pods, followed by leaf petioles and stems and also in methanol extracts of all investigated parts (leaf petioles, leaf blades, stems and mature pods) in this regard, ethanol extracts were found to contain the lowest amount of all investigated phytochemicals compared to any other extracts. Ethanol and methanol extracts of all investigated parts are devoid of saponins, since saponins were found only in boiling water extracts of all investigated parts; with special reference to fresh samples of leaf petioles, stems and dried samples of mature pods. Regarding total phenolic contents, it was found that, the highest amount was recorded to be in dried samples of mature pods (28.671 ± 0.021) and both fresh and dried samples of leaf blades (28.571 ± 0.020 and 24.927 ± 0.020 mg/g respectively), the least amount was recorded to be in both fresh and dried samples of leaf petioles (19.670 ± 0.011 and 19.686 ± 0.017 mg/g respectively). Meanwhile the differences in all investigated samples are very small regarding their flavonoidal contents, dried samples of mature pods and fresh samples of stems were found to contain the highest amount in this regard (5.963 ± 0.011 and 5.957 ± 0.008 mg/g respectively). Additionally, all extracts of different parts of Cassia fistula L. (Golden shower trees) were examined for their nematotoxicity against Meloidogyne incognita, results showed that, all investigated extracts were effective against infective juveniles of root knot nematode; the mortality percentages were ranged between 11 to 100%, aqueous extracts of most plant parts achieved the best results in this regard (morality percentages are higher than 50%). Meanwhile, ethanolic extracts of all plant parts caused toxicity percentages' lower than those of water extracts, but higher than methanolic ones with few exceptions; dry leaf blades extracted by ethanol caused mortality to about half of subjected juveniles. On the other hand, methanolic extracts of all plant parts showed lower efficacy than aqueous and methanolic ones, except methanolic extracts of fresh leaf petioles, since it caused complete death of juveniles. It can be concluded that, nematicidal activity of such extracts were positively correlated with their phytochemical contents.


Anthelmintic plants, Nematotoxicity, Cassia fistula L., Plant extracts, Phytochemical surveys.

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