Nodira Azimova, Ilkhom Khalilov, Fazliddin Kobilov, Muhammad L. Nazirov, Sergey Elansky, Elena Chudinova


An isolate belonging to the genus Phytophthora was isolated from samples of infected potato plants in Uzbekistan. The morphological characteristics of the isolate were studied and the fungus P. infestans belonging to the type of oomycetes was determined. The colony of Phytophthora. sp isolate is colorless and the mycelium appears porous when growing.When studying the microscopic appearance, it was found that the hyphae are not septated, the width of the hypha is 2.5-4.4 μm, the width of the sporangium is 12-17 μm, and the length is 18-25 μm.It was found that P.infestans has amphigynous antheridium with oogonium and chlamydospores.To determine the exact phylogenetic status of this isolate, rRNA gene ITS region (845 bp) and cox2 (627 bp) gene were PCR amplified. The phylogeny of both marker genes showed that the isolate was P. infestans and named P. infestans TVKT-1 due to its closeness to P. infestans species. The analysis of the ITS region of the rDNA gene as a barcode alone does not provide enough information for the identification of species belonging to the genus Phytophthora, for this, it is important to study the genetic analysis of oomycetes with the additional study of the cox2 gene. Compared to Phytophthora infestans species in the NCBI database, P. infestans TVKT-1, which we isolated, was found to have SNP mutations in the ITS region (16, 23, and 29 nucleotides) and cox2 gene (362, 364, and 365 nucleotides) nucleotide sequences.


Phytophthora infestans; morphology; ITS rDNA; cox gene; molecular identification; amplification; PCR

Full Text:



Ali H.H., M.A. Keldish and U.I. Pomaskov. 2010. New vector of the potato virus X — Phytophthora infestans (mont.) de bary. Bulletin of the Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, series Agronomy and animal husbandry, 3: 18-23.

Choi ,Y.J., S.B. Hong and H.D. Shin. 2007. Extreme size and sequence variation in the ITS rDNA of Bremia lactucae. Mycopathologia, 163: 91-95.

Choi, Y.J., G. Beakes, S. Glockling, J. Kruse, B. Nam, L. Nigrelli and M. Thines. 2015. Towards a universal barcode of oomycetes - a comparison of the cox1 and cox2 loci. Molecular Ecology Resources, 15 (6): 1275–1288. doi:10.1111/1755-0998.12398.

Cooke, D.E.L., A. Drenth, J.M. Duncan, G. Wagels and C.M. 2000. Brasier. molecular phylogeny of Phytophthora and related oomycetes. Fungal Genetics and Biology, 30: 17-32.

Daniel, S. and D. Birtukan. 2020. Novel characteristics of Phytophthora infestans causing late blight on potato in Ethiopia // Current Plant Biology, 24: 1-9.

Drenth, A. 1994. Molecular genetic evidence for a new sexually reproducing population of Phytophthora infestans in Europe. Wageningen Vol. 150.

Dyakov, Y.T. and S.N. Elansky. 2017. General phytopathology: a textbook for secondary vocational education / Moscow: Yurayt Publishing House.pp.230.

Elansky, S.N., M.A. Pobedinskaya, L.Y. Kokaeva, N.V. Statsyuk and Y.T. Dyakov. 2015. Phytophthora infestans populations from the european part of russia: genotypic structure and metalaxyl resistance. Journal of Plant Pathology, 97 (3): 449-456.

El-Ganainy, S. M., Z.A. Iqbal, H.M. Awad, M.N. Sattar, A.M. Tohamy, A. Abbas, J.E.L. Squires and D. Cooke. 2022. Genotypic and Phenotypic Structure of the Population of Phytophthora infestans in Egypt Revealed the Presence of European Genotypes. Journal of Fungi (Basel), 30 (5): 468. doi: 10.3390/jof8050468.

Frank, N., Z. Martin, A. Gloria, B. Yilmaz and I. Kelly. 2012. Identification and Detection of Phytophthora: Reviewing Our Progress, Identifying Our Needs. Plant Disease, 96(8): 1080-1103.

Garcнa-Bázquez, G., M. Göker and H. Voglmayr. 2008. Phylogeny of Peronospora, parasitic on Fabaceae, based on ITS sequences. Mycological Research, 112: 502-512.

Gómez-Gonzàlez, S., D. Castañeda-Sànchezm and J. Morales-Osorio. 2020. Media preferences, micro-morphometric analysis, and cardinal growth temperature determination for Phytophthora infestans sensu lato isolated from different hosts in Colombia. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 80(1): 167-179.

Goodwin, S.B., D.E. Legard, C.D. Smart, M. Levy and W.E. Fry. 1999. Gene flow analysis of molecular markers confirms that Phytophthora mirabilis and P. infestans are separate species. Mycologia. 91: 796-810.

Goodwin, S.B., A. Drenth and W.E. Fry. 1992. Cloning and genetic analyses of two highly polymorphic, moderately repetitive nuclear DNAs from Phytophthora infestans. Current Genetics, 22: 107-115.

Griffith, G.W. and D.S. Shaw. 1998. Polymorphisms in Phytophthora infestans: four mitochondrial haplotypes are detected after PCR amplification of DNA from pure culture or from host lesions. Applied Environmental and Microbiology, 64: 4007-4014.

Haverkort, A.J., P.C. Struik, R.G.F. Visser and E. Jacobsen. 2009. Applied biotechnology to combat late blight in potato caused by Phytophthora infestans. Potato Research, 52: 249–264. doi: 10.1007/s11540-009-9136-3.

Hudspeth, D.S.S., S.A. Nadler and M.E.S. Hudspeth. 2000. A COX2 molecular phylogeny of the Peronosporomycetes. Mycologia, 92: 674-684.

https:// ozbekistonda-

kartoshka-narxlari-kotarilishiga-nima-sabab-boldi- va-kelajakda-narx-pasayishi-mumkinmi

Khamiraev, U.K. 2018. The presence of Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary on the territory of Uzbekistan and the use of modern fungicides in its control // Bulletin of science and practice. 4: 148-152. Access mode:

Khamiraev, U.Q. 2022.Phytophthora disease of potatoes in the central regions of Uzbekistan and improvement of measures to combat it. Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) dissertation abstract, Tashkent, Vol. 35.

Li, Y., D.E.L. Cooke, L. D. Van and E. Jacobsen. 2013. Efficient multiplex simple sequence repeat genotyping of the oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Journal of Microbiology, 92: 316-322.

Marko, L., K. Kersti and K. Arnold. 2011. Extraction of genomic DNA from yeasts for PCR-based applications. Article in Biology and Techniques. 2: 16-23. DOI: 10.2144/000113672. Source: PubMed.

Martin F.N. and P.W. Tooley. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships among Phytophthora species inferred from sequence analysis of mitochondrially encoded cytochrome oxidase I and II genes. Mycologia, 95: 269-284.

Matsishina N.V., P.V. Fisenko, O.A. Sobko, I.V. Kim, D.I. Volkov and N.G. Boginskaya. 2021. Study of isolates of Phytophthora infestans Mont. de Bary in potato plantings. Russian vegetables. 12(6): 86-91.

Moller, E.M., A. Cock and H.H. Prell. 1993. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA restriction enzyme analysis of the closely related Phytophthora species P. infestans, P. mirabilis, and P. Phaseoli. Journal of Phytopathology, 139: 309-321.

Raza, W., M.U. Ghazanfar, M. Asif, I. Ul-Haq, M. Zakria and L.K.T. Al-Ani. 2022. Morphological characterization of Phytophthora infestans and its growth on different growth media. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 38 (4): 1189-1202.

Robideau, G.P., A. Cock and M.D. Coffey. 2011. DNA barcoding of oomycetes with cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and internal transcribed spacer. Molecular Ecology Resources. 11: 1002-1011.

Schoch, C. L., K.A. Seifert, S. Huhndorf, V. Robert, J.L. Spouge and C.A. Levesque. 2012. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region as a universal DNA barcode marker for Fungi. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 109: 6241–6246. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1117018109

Voglmayr, H., M. Montes-Borrego and B.B. Landa. 2014. Disentangling Peronospora on Papaver: phylogenetics, taxonomy, nomenclature and host range of downy mildew of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) and related species. PLoS One, 9: 96838.

Yang, X. and C. Hong. 2018. Differential Usefulness of Nine Commonly Used Genetic Markers for Identifying Phytophthora Species. Frontiers in Microbiology, 9: 32-46. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2018.02334.

Yarullina, L.G., R.I. Ibragimov, V.O. Tsvetkov, L.M. Yarullina and I.A. Shpirnaya. 2016. Cytochemical and biochemical methods for the study of microorganisms - pathogens of plant diseases: textbook // Ufa: RIC BashSU. 92: 41-56.

Young-Joon, C., B. Gordon, G. Sally., K. Julia., N. Bora, N. Lisa, P. Sebastian, S. Hyeon-Dong, G. Roger, S. Shivas, H.V. Telle and T. Marco. 2015. Towards a universal barcode of oomycetes – a comparison of the cox1 and cox2 loci. Molecular and Ecological Recourses, 15(6): 1275–1288. doi:10.1111/1755-0998.12398.

Zaprometov, N. G. 1974. Diagnosis and composition of diseases of agricultural plants Uzbekistan and Central Asia (1950-1973) // Materials of the anniversary republic conf. on microbiology, algology and mycology, dedicated to the 50th of the UzSSR and СP of Uzbekistan. Tashkent, Fan. 2: 139-143.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2024 Nodira Azimova, Ilkhom Khalilov, Fazliddin Kobilov, Muhammad-Latif Nazirov, Sergey Elansky, Elina Chudinova

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology
ISSN: 1019-763X (Print), 2305-0284 (Online).
© 2013 Pak. J. Phytopathol. All rights reserved.